In accordance with PICOS and PRSMA a comprehensive evaluation where cumulative data from 15o studies performed between 1980-2014 out of 6,130 patients that were evaluated 1,684 patients developed pin site infections yielding an overall pin infection rate of 27.4%.
"The health and stability of the half pin to skin interface and the half pin to bone interface are critical in external fixation. Breakdown at either of these interfaces can result in a pin track infection. Despite innovations in half pin design and pin care regimens, pin track infections continue to be an anticipated nuisance of using external fixation."
Cited from: Iobst CA, Liu RW. A systematic review of incidence of pin site infections associated with external fixation. J Limb Lengthen Reconstr 2016;2:6-16
102 Patients were treated with external fixation for open fractures
Male: Female ratio 1.4:1 (59 male -43 female)
Age Range- 5-65 years
Pin-Tract Infections Following External Fixation of Open Fractures
12 1Joseph N. Kortor, *Terkula M. Kpela, Sunday O. Poopola 12 Department of Surgery and Department of Anatomy, college of Health Sciences, Benue State University/ Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria
(Journal of Medicine in the Tropics (2011) 13:2: 105-108)